Study Guide - GEY 101 - Exam II
The Earth, Rock Cycle, Matter, and Minerals

What is the part of the earth which forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.

Consider the tectonic plates on either side of a mid-ocean ridge. How are the plates moving with respect to the boundary?

Mount St. Helens and the other Cascade Range volcanoes are associated a ____________ plate boundary.

____________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.

____________ rocks always originate on the surface.

In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

____________ is the process by which rocks erode to produce soils and sediments.

Can sedimentary rocks weather to igneous rocks?

The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ____________ of the Earth.

The ____________ is thought to be the only molten, metallic, portion of the Earth's interior.

The ____________ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.

The San Andreas fault in California is a good example of a(n) ____________ plate boundary.

New seafloor is created at ____________ plate boundaries.

What are the three, basic categories of rocks defined in the rock cycle?

The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 5 to 40 km in thickness, is called the ____________.

The ____________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and upper mantle.

The ____________ is the weak zone in the mantle below the lithosphere.

The ____________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core.

List the three types of plate boundaries.

A plate boundary where two plates slide laterally in opposite directions is a ____________ boundary.

At a ____________ boundary, the two plates are moving towards one another.

Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

  • a.a rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometrical, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks
  • b.a mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern
  • a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains
  • d.a rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated aggregate of different rock particles

    Which of the following particles is not found in the nucleus of an atom?

  • a.neutron
  • b.selectron
  • c.electron
  • d.protons

    Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of ____________.

    Describe ionic bonding.

    What varies for isotopes of the same element?

    What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

    Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

    Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2)?

    What minerals are silicates?

    A cubic centimeter of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This indicates that ____________.

    What minerals are ferromagnesian silicates?

    What minerals are in the mineral group known as mica?

    What characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?

    Which mineral groups exhibit a sheet-like silicate structure?

    Which mineral is a typical product of weathering?

    The ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by ____________.

    What is the crystal form of Halite?

    What is the crystal form of Calcite?

    What is the crystal form of Quartz?

    All silicate minerals contain which two elements?

    All ferromagnesian minerals contain which two elements?

    Small, parallel grooves or striations visible on cleavage surfaces are characteristic of which mineral?

    Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?

    What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?

    The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ____________.

    An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?

    Ferromagnesian minerals generally exhibit which properties?

    What in the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction?

    Which one of the following is not true for minerals?

  • a.they have a specific, internal, crystalline structure
  • b.they can be a liquid, solid, or glass
  • c.they have a specific, predictable chemical composition
  • d.they can be identified by characteristic physical properties

    In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?

    How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding?

    Which group of minerals is the most abundant in the Earth's crust?

    Which of the following denotes the tiny, but very massive, central part of an atom?

    Which the following denotes the massive, positively charged, nuclear particles?

    What, basic, atomic particles occupy space in an atom outside of the nucleus?

    Which element is the first and lightest element in the periodic chart?

    What are the lightest or least massive of the basic atomic particles?

    Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?

    Which of the following will react readily with acids such as hydrochloric?

    Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?

    List the minerals in Moh's hardness scale.

    In feldspars, what element can be thought of as substituting for silicon?

    What is the name of dark-colored mica?

    What mineral is not a rock-forming silicate mineral?

    Which silicate minerals have a 3-dimensional framework structure?

    Plagioclase feldspars contain significant, variable percentages of which elements?

    Aluminum atoms have what ionic charge in most rock-forming minerals?

    Which mineral has a single-chain, ferromagnesian silicate mineral?

    Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure?

    Moh's hardness scale is a relative measure of which physical property of minerals?

    What physical property denotes the color of a powdered mineral?

    The physical property denoting a mineral's tendency to crack along parallel, planar surfaces is known as what?

    What is the hardest mineral known?

    What is the chemical composition of graphite and diamond?

    In atoms, which electrons are involved in chemical bonding?

    A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more what?

    What is the dominant form of chemical bonding exhibited by minerals such as native gold, native copper and copper-rich sulfides?

    What two major characteristics differentiate minerals from natural glasses?

    Most glasses and some minerals exhibit a type of fracture characterized by nested and curved, crack surfaces. What term describes this property?

    Parallel, straight, linear imperfections visible on the cleavage surfaces of plagioclase feldspar are called what?

    Rocks are aggregates of one or more what?

    What is the smallest particle of matter that exhibits and defines the distinctive chemical characteristics of the individual elements?

    The massive but tiny central core region of an atom is called?

    What ferromagnesian silicate mineral is named for its green color?

    What minerals form by the breakdown and weathering of rock-forming silicate minerals and are important constituents of soils?

    What are the two most abundant elements by weight in Earth's crust?

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